• V. V. Lopatin Geotehnical Mechanics named by N. Poljakov of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Dnipro, Ukraine,
Keywords: non-destructive control, capillary method, penetrations, flaw detection


The history of capillary control began in the 40s of the last century for the needs of the aerospace industry. Currently, the cost of quality control in the aerospace industry is up to 12 - 18% of the cost of products. Similar amounts of expenses in the nuclear and defense industries are not lagging behind other industries. For example, for the control of welded joints of oil and gas pipelines of large diameter and considerable length, the labor costs for inspection reach 10% of the total labor costs. Capillary quality control method is based on the ability of indicator liquids (penetrants) to penetrate into the cavities of surface defects (discontinuities). Over the 70 years of its existence, the capillary method of control has not undergone fundamental changes, and its principles have remained unchanged. In international practice, the abbreviated designation of types of non-destructive testing (AWS) is adopted, and the control with the use of penetrating liquid denoted RT. This method is applicable to the detection of all types of surface
dead-end and through defects, such as cracks, delamination, leaks, in products made from any non-porous materials, including glass, ceramics, plastics and other non-metallic materials. The analysis of the capillary method of nondestructive testing of the surface of a solid body is carried out, the possibilities and ways of its improvement are indicated. The method of the capillary method of non-destructive testing of a solid surface, the physics of the method and its implementation are considered in detail. It is shown that the wetting ability and spreading are important characteristics of capillary control fluids; therefore, they must be evaluated and analyzed when developing new ones, choosing or comparing known capillary flaw detection materials. The possibility of using the Rebinder effect to improve the capillary method of non-destructive testing of a solid surface has been proved. A refined method of capillary defectoscopy is proposed by taking into account the wetting ability, density, viscosity and evaporation of a liquid, which makes it possible to make an optimal choice of liquid to ensure high efficiency of surface (capillary)
control. An improved method for assessing the wetting ability of liquids is proposed, which makes it possible to evaluate the wetting ability of liquids by the size of the spreading spot of their droplets, taking into account the influence of density, viscosity and evaporation of liquids intended for capillary flaw detection (penetrants).


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GOST 18442-80 Nondestructive control. Capillary methods. General requirements

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